How to reference in Harvard Style

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This short guide will help you better understand how to properly reference sources using Harvard Style, also known as the “Author and Date System.” Listed below are some general rules to follow when using this reference style to cite sources in your bibliography or reference list. As you read through this guide, keep in mind that the Harvard Guide stresses consistency throughout a document. A handy, simple-to-use chart also offers tips and examples for citing your sources using the Harvard Style.

Capitalization

According to Harvard Style, there are generally no specific rules regarding capitalizing an author’s last name in the body of your work. However, the authors’ last names should be capitalized in the reference list or bibliography and consistency throughout the document is ideal.

Italics and Underlining

The title of a source must be either underlined or italicized, but not both. The Harvard Style has no preference to either; however, consistency should be maintained throughout the document.

Punctuation

Regarding punctuation, consistency is key. For example, if you prefer to place a period inside the ending quotation mark, then be sure to do this throughout the entire document.

In-Text Basics

Any information that is not your own thought, idea or quote must be cited. Within your document, simply cite sources using authors’ last name and date in parenthesis. This must follow the sentence you quoted or referenced.

How to Reference Specific Sources

There are a variety of types of sources that may be used in order to form your thesis or the body of your assignment. The following chart will give you a better understanding of the specifics regarding particular source types. Determine what kind of source you are using and then use the chart to reference it using the Harvard Style.

Please note where periods and/or colons and commas each fall in the format below.

Type of SourceFormatBibliography ExampleIn Text Example
Book (1 author)Last name, initials. (Publication year in parenthesis) Book Title- italicized or underlined. Series title & volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.Jones, T. (2014) How to Reference in Harvard Style. 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Jones (2014) notes that…

“quotation” (Jones, 2014, p. 58)

Book (2-3 authors)Last name, initials.,
last name, initials. and
last name, initials. (publication year in parenthesis) Book Title- italicized or underlined. Series title & volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.
Smith, L., Thomas, W. and Morris, H. (2012) English Grammar 101. San Francisco: Harper and Rowe Publishers.

*NOTE: Use either “and” or “&” but be consistent in your choice throughout the list.

Smith, Thomas and Morris (2012)…

As noted by Smith, Thomas and Morris (2012)…

“quotation” (Smith, Thomas and Morris, 2012, p. 403)

Book
(4 authors or more)
You may choose to list all authors, or “et al” or “and others.”

Last name, initials. et al. or and others. (Publication year in parenthesis) Book Title- italicized or underlined. Series title & volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.

Johnson, K. et al. (2009) Grammar Tips. 5th Ed. New Jersey: Princeton Press.(Johnson, et al., 2009)…

“quotation” (Johnson, et al., 2009, p. 124)

Book
(only with editor listed)
Last name, initials. (ed.) or (eds.)- in parenthesis for editor(s). Publication year in parenthesis) Book Title- italicized or underlined. Series title & volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.Vega, T.G. (ed.) (2013) The World of Publishing: Concepts, Marketing, and Networking. Boston: Arthur Print & Press.Vega (2013) argues that…

“quotation” (Vega, 2013, p. 93)

Chapter in an
edited book
Last name, initials of author writing the chapter. (Publication year in parenthesis) Title of Chapter. In last name, initials of author or ed(s). Book Title- italicized or underlined. Series title & volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.Roberts, S. (2015) Design Thinking. In De Venuta, S. Twentieth-Century Concepts of Design. 2nd Ed. Boston: Penguin Press.As noted by Roberts (2015)…

“quotation” (Roberts, 2015, p. 67)

Corporate authors

(committees, groups, companies)

 Includes publications by Government departments, or committees.

Country. Name of issuing body. (publication year in parenthesis) Title of publication in italics or underlined. Place of publication: Publisher (Report number, if applicable, in parenthesis).

 United States. Department of Energy. (2014) Research and Development Needs for Building Integrated Solar Technology. Burlington, MA: Navigant Consulting, Inc. (Energy Papers 15).The U.S. Department of Energy (2014) concluded that…

“quotation” (United States, Department of Energy, 2014, p. 42)

E-BooksLast name, initials. (year of publication in parenthesis) Book Title in italics or underlined. [Online] Series title and volume, if applicable. Edition- if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from- URL [Accessed: date].Kelley, B. G. (2011) Researching Your Irish Ancestors Without Going to Ireland. [Online] Genealogy Roots, Volume Two. Utah: Ancestry Press. Available from: http://netlibrary.com/reader/. [Accessed: 17th May 2015].Kelley (2011) suggests that…

“quotation” (Kelley, 2011, p. 82)

Films (DVD, VHS, or
Blu-ray)
Title- in italics or underlined. (year of distribution in parenthesis) Material type. Directed by: name of director(s). [format of source in square brackets]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.Robin Hood (1985) Animated Film. Directed by: Peter White. [DVD] UK: MGM Studios.

Field of Dreams (1989). Film. Directed by: Phil Alden Robinson. [VHS] Boston: Gordon Company.

If you refer to a film in the body of your work, the title should be either italicized or underlined. (choose one)

The animation movement (Robin Hood, 1985)

…this is exemplified in Kevin Costner’s character in the film Field of Dreams (1989).

Journal article (electronic/online)If referencing an online journal via a password accessible database, such as EBSCO-HOST, shorten the URL to the home-page. If accessing it directly online & free, you must use the entire URL.

Author(s) of article’s last name, initials. (year of publication in parenthesis). Title of article. Title of journal- italicized or underlined. [Online in square brackets] Name of database. Volume number (part #/ month in parenthesis). p. followed by page number. Available from: URL. [Accessed: followed by date viewed].

Thompson, B. (2012). Biology and Plant Life. World of Science. [Online] Ebsco-Host (7). P. 15. Available from: http:www.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 19 March 2015].Thompson (2012) points out that…

“quotation” (Thompson, 2012, p. 15)

Journal article (printed)Author(s) of article’s last name, initials. (year of publication in parenthesis). Title of article. Title of journal- italicized or underlined. Volume number (part # or month in parenthesis). p. followed by page numbers of the article.Denton, K. and Fritz, G. (2008). Mary Cassatt: Her Life and Art. Art and History. (43). P. 12.Denton and Fritz (2008) clearly state that…

“quotation” (Denton and Fritz, 2008. P. 12)

Newspaper articleAuthor(s) of article’s last name, initials. (year of publication in parenthesis) Title of article. Title of Newspaper- italicized or underlined. [Online in square brackets] Name of database article is from, if applicable. Day and month of article. Page number, if applicable. Available from: URL. [Accessed: date viewed].Bly, N. (2004). Nickel and Dimed. The New York Times. [Online] 12th May 2004. Available from: http://newyorktimes.com/ [Accessed: 12th May 2015].Bly (2004) argues that…

“quotation” (Bly, 2004, p. 3C)

WebpageAuthor of the website’s last name, initials or website name (all caps) if no author. (year- in parenthesis) Title of Website in italics or underlined. Any numbers if it is part of a series. [Online in square brackets] Available from: URL. [Accessed: date viewed].BIOLOGY TODAY. (2015) Plant Life and Earth Science. [Online] Available from: http://biologytoday.org [Accessed: 4th April 2015].…as reported by Biology Today (2015).

“quotation” (Biology Today, 2015)

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